Substance Use Disorders
Increased prevalence of alcohol, illicit and prescription drug abuse represents a considerable treatment challenge for health professionals. In 2018, fewer than 20% of the 21.2 million people in the USA needing treatment for a substance use disorder received any treatment (1). This is, at least in part, driven by the limited number of approved pharmaceutical treatments (with their being none approved for some substance use disorders), there minimal efficacy, and in some cases poor safety and tolerability. Despite this, medication-assisted treatment remains the recommended first line therapy for many substance use disorders. Consequently, there is an urgent need for more effective treatments.